Eliana Maria Nigro Rocha


Abstract - Agosto a Dezembro de 2017

[A Multi-arm Placebo-controlled Study with Glutamic Acid Conducted in Rostock in 1953/1954]. - FARMACOLOGIA

Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr. 2017 Sep;66(7):516-525.

[Article in German]


Häßler F, Weirich S.

Tagesklinik für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie der GGP Dierkower, Rostock Deutschland Tagesklinik für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie der GGP; Universitätsmedizin Rostock Gehlsheimer


A Multi-arm Placebo-controlled Study with Glutamic Acid Conducted in Rostock in 1953/1954 Glutamic acid was commonly used in the treatment of intellectually disabled children in the 50s. Koch reported first results of an observation of 140 children treated with glutamic acid in 1952. In this line is the multi-arm placebo-controlled study reported here. The original study protocols were available. 58 children with speech problems who attending a school of special needs received glutamic acid, or vitamin B, or St.-John's-wort. The effect of glutamic acid was in few cases an improvement of attention. On the other hand restlessness and stutter increased. The majority of all reported a weight loss. The treatment with vitamin B showed a positive effect concerning concentration. The treatment with St.-John's wort was stopped caused by headache and vomiting in eight of nine cases. The results of the study reported here are unpublished. The reason may be that until the 60s the effects of glutamic acid in the treatment of intellectually disabled children were in generally overestimated.

PMID: 29557312 DOI: 10.13109/prkk.2017.66.7.516




Efeito da retroalimentação auditiva atrasada na gagueira com e sem alteração do processamento auditivo central - AUDITIVO

Codas. 2017 Dec 7;29(6):e20170038.

Free full text:  Inglês - http://www.scielo.br/pdf/codas/v29n6/en_2317-1782-codas-29-6-e20170038.pdf

português - http://www.scielo.br/pdf/codas/v29n6/2317-1782-codas-29-6-e20170038.pdf


Picoloto LA, Cardoso ACV, Cerqueira AV, Oliveira CMC.

Faculdade de Filosofia e Ciências da Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP - Marília (SP), Brasil.


OBJETIVO: Verificar o efeito da retroalimentação auditiva atrasada na fluência da fala de indivíduos que gaguejam, com e sem alteração do processamento auditivo central.

MÉTODO: Participaram 20 indivíduos com gagueira, de sete a 17 anos, divididos em dois grupos, cada um com 10 indivíduos: Grupo Gagueira com Transtorno do Processamento Auditivo (GGTPA) e Grupo Gagueira (GG) sem alteração de processamento auditivo central. Os procedimentos foram: avaliação da fluência com retroalimentação auditiva habitual (RAH) e atrasada (RAA), e avaliação da gravidade da gagueira e do processamento auditivo central (PAC). O software Fono Tools foi utilizado para provocar o atraso de 100 milissegundos na retroalimentação auditiva. O teste dos Postos Sinalizados de Wilcoxon foi utilizado na análise intragrupos, e o teste de Mann-Whitney, na análise intergrupos.

RESULTADOS: A RAA ocasionou no GG redução estatisticamente significante: no escore da frequência das disfluências típicas da gagueira na análise do Instrumento de Gravidade da Gagueira, na quantidade de bloqueios e de repetições de palavras monossilábicas, e na frequência de disfluências típicas da gagueira de duração. O atraso na retroalimentação auditiva não provocou efeitos estatisticamente significantes na fluência do GGTPA, grupo dos indivíduos com gagueira com alteração do PAC.

CONCLUSÃO: O efeito da retroalimentação auditiva atrasada na fala de indivíduos com gagueira foi diferente nos indivíduos com e sem alteração do processamento auditivo central, pois houve melhora da fluência apenas nos indivíduos sem alteração do PAC.

PMID: 29236907 DOI: 10.1590/2317-1782/201720170038




Effect of delayed auditory feedback on stuttering with and without central auditory processing disorders.

Codas. 2017 Dec 7;29(6):e20170038.

Free full text:  Inglês - http://www.scielo.br/pdf/codas/v29n6/en_2317-1782-codas-29-6-e20170038.pdf

português - http://www.scielo.br/pdf/codas/v29n6/2317-1782-codas-29-6-e20170038.pdf


Picoloto LA, Cardoso ACV, Cerqueira AV, Oliveira CMC.

Faculdade de Filosofia e Ciências da Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP - Marília (SP), Brasil.


PURPOSE: To verify the effect of delayed auditory feedback on speech fluency of individuals who stutter with and without central auditory processing disorders.

METHODS: The participants were twenty individuals with stuttering from 7 to 17 years old and were divided into two groups: Stuttering Group with Auditory Processing Disorders (SGAPD): 10 individuals with central auditory processing disorders, and Stuttering Group (SG): 10 individuals without central auditory processing disorders. Procedures were: fluency assessment with non-altered auditory feedback (NAF) and delayed auditory feedback (DAF), assessment of the stuttering severity and central auditory processing (CAP). Phono Tools software was used to cause a delay of 100 milliseconds in the auditory feedback. The "Wilcoxon Signal Post" test was used in the intragroup analysis and "Mann-Whitney" test in the intergroup analysis.

RESULTS: The DAF caused a statistically significant reduction in SG: in the frequency score of stuttering-like disfluencies in the analysis of the Stuttering Severity Instrument, in the amount of blocks and repetitions of monosyllabic words, and in the frequency of stuttering-like disfluencies of duration. Delayed auditory feedback did not cause statistically significant effects on SGAPD fluency, individuals with stuttering with auditory processing disorders.

CONCLUSION: The effect of delayed auditory feedback in speech fluency of individuals who stutter was different in individuals of both groups, because there was an improvement in fluency only in individuals without auditory processing disorder.

PMID: 29236907 DOI: 10.1590/2317-1782/201720170038




How Stuttering Develops: The Multifactorial Dynamic Pathways Theory - CONCEITO

Review J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2017 Sep 18;60(9):2483-2505.

Free PMC article: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5831617/pdf/JSLHR-60-2483.pdf


Anne Smith, Christine Weber

Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana.


Purpose: We advanced a multifactorial, dynamic account of the complex, nonlinear interactions of motor, linguistic, and emotional factors contributing to the development of stuttering. Our purpose here is to update our account as the multifactorial dynamic pathways theory.

Method: We review evidence related to how stuttering develops, including genetic/epigenetic factors; motor, linguistic, and emotional features; and advances in neuroimaging studies. We update evidence for our earlier claim: Although stuttering ultimately reflects impairment in speech sensorimotor processes, its course over the life span is strongly conditioned by linguistic and emotional factors.

Results: Our current account places primary emphasis on the dynamic developmental context in which stuttering emerges and follows its course during the preschool years. Rapid changes in many neurobehavioral systems are ongoing, and critical interactions among these systems likely play a major role in determining persistence of or recovery from stuttering.

Conclusion: Stuttering, or childhood onset fluency disorder (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013), is a neurodevelopmental disorder that begins when neural networks supporting speech, language, and emotional functions are rapidly developing. The multifactorial dynamic pathways theory motivates experimental and clinical work to determine the specific factors that contribute to each child's pathway to the diagnosis of stuttering and those most likely to promote recovery.

PMID: 28837728 PMCID: PMC5831617 DOI: 10.1044/2017_JSLHR-S-16-0343




Effects of emotion on the acoustic parameters in adults who stutter: An exploratory study.

J Fluency Disord. 2017 Dec;54:35-49. Epub 2017 Sep 18.

No abstract available.


Bauerly KR, Paxton J.

Plattsburgh State University


PMID: 29195626 DOI: 10.1016/j.jfludis.2017.09.006




Self-efficacy and quality of life in adults who stutter - EMOCIONAL

J Fluency Disord. 2017 Dec;54:14-23 Epub 2017 Sep 21.


Carter A, Breen L, Yaruss JS, Beilby J.

Curtin University, Western Australia, Australia; Michigan State University, USA.


PURPOSE: Self-efficacy has emerged as a potential predictor of quality of life for adults who stutter. Research has focused primarily on the positive relationship self-efficacy has to treatment outcomes, but little is known about the relationship between self-efficacy and quality of life for adults who stutter. The purpose of this mixed- methods study is to determine the predictive value of self-efficacy and its relationship to quality of life for adults who stutter.

METHOD: The Self-Efficacy Scale for Adult Stutterers and the Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience with Stuttering were administered to 39 adults who stutter, aged 18- 77. Percentage of syllables stuttered was calculated from a conversational speech sample as a measure of stuttered speech frequency. Qualitative interviews with semi-structured probes were conducted with 10 adults and analyzed using thematic analysis to explore the lived experience of adults who stutter.

RESULTS: Self-efficacy emerged as a strong positive predictor of quality of life for adults living with a stuttered speech disorder. Stuttered speech frequency was a moderate negative predictor of self-efficacy. Major qualitative themes identified from the interviews with the participants were: encumbrance, self-concept, confidence, acceptance, life-long journey, treatment, and support.

CONCLUSION: Results provide clarity on the predictive value of self-efficacy and its relationship to quality of life and stuttered speech frequency. Findings highlight that the unique life experiences of adults who stutter require a multidimensional approach to the assessment and treatment of stuttered speech disorders.

PMID: 29195624 DOI: 10.1016/j.jfludis.2017.09.004




Speaker and Observer Perceptions of Physical Tension during Stuttering - AVALIAÇÃO

Folia Phoniatr Logop. 2017;69(4):180-189. Epub 2018 Feb 8.


Tichenor S, Leslie P, Shaiman S, Yaruss JS.

Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA; University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.


PURPOSE: Speech-language pathologists routinely assess physical tension during evaluation of those who stutter. If speakers experience tension that is not visible to clinicians, then judgments of severity may be inaccurate. This study addressed this potential discrepancy by comparing judgments of tension by people who stutter and expert clinicians to determine if clinicians could accurately identify the speakers' experience of physical tension.

METHOD: Ten adults who stutter were audio-video recorded in two speaking samples. Two board-certified specialists in fluency evaluated the samples using the Stuttering Severity Instrument-4 and a checklist adapted for this study. Speakers rated their tension using the same forms, and then discussed their experiences in a qualitative interview so that themes related to physical tension could be identified.

RESULTS: The degree of tension reported by speakers was higher than that observed by specialists. Tension in parts of the body that were less visible to the observer (chest, abdomen, throat) was reported more by speakers than by specialists. The thematic analysis revealed that speakers' experience of tension changes over time and that these changes may be related to speakers' acceptance of stuttering.

CONCLUSION: The lack of agreement between speaker and specialist perceptions of tension suggests that using self-reports is a necessary component for supporting the accurate diagnosis of tension in stuttering.

PMID: 29421786 DOI: 10.1159/000486032dhood stuttering.




The experience of stuttering among Ultra-Orthodox and Secular/Traditional Jews - SOCIAL

J Fluency Disord. 2017 Dec;54:24-34. Epub 2017 Oct 2.


Freud D, Ezrati-Vinacour R, Katz-Bernstein N, Fostick L.

Ariel University, Ariel, Israel; Tel-Aviv University, Israel; TU Dortmund University, Germany


PURPOSE: This groundbreaking research compares the experience of stuttering among adult male People Who Stutter (PWS) from the ultra-Orthodox (UO) Jewish community in Israel to those from Secular/Traditional (ST) backgrounds. 

METHODS: Participants were 32 UO and 31 ST PWS, aged 18-67 years. Self-report questionnaires utilized: Perceived Stuttering Severity (PSS); Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience of Stuttering (OASES-A); Students' Life Satisfaction Scale (SLSS); Situation Avoidance Behavior Checklist (SABC). Demographic, religious, and stuttering information was collected. Groups were compared on scales, and correlations between scales and the PSS.

RESULTS: Subjective stuttering severity ratings were significantly higher among the UO. A significant group effect was found for the OASES-A quality of life subscale, but not other subscales. Significant positive correlations were found between: 1) PSS and OASES-A Total Impact; 2) PSS and 3 OASES subscales; and 3) PSS and SABC (indicating increased avoidance with increased stuttering severity rating). A significant negative correlation was found between the PSS and SLSS, indicating lower life satisfaction with higher rates of stuttering severity among the ST. Interestingly, when tested by group, significant correlations between the PSS and all other study measures were observed only among the ST.

CONCLUSION: UO participants showed higher subjective stuttering severity ratings, yet less impact on quality of life, and no correlation between subjective stuttering and other measures of stuttering experience. These novel findings may result from the combined protective effect of religiosity and socio-cultural characteristics on UO PWS' well-being, despite heightened concern about social consequences of stuttering within UO society.

PMID: 29195625 DOI: 10.1016/j.jfludis.2017.09.007




The Topography of Stuttering in Cantonese - FALA

Folia Phoniatr Logop. 2017;69(3):110-117. Epub 2017 Dec 18.


Law T, Packman A, Onslow M, To CK, Tong MC, Lee KY

The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong; The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong.


OBJECTIVE: This is the first study to investigate the behavioral nature (topography) of stuttering in Cantonese. Cantonese, a Sino-Tibetan language, is both tonal and syllable-timed. Previous studies of stuttering topography have mainly been in Western languages, which are mainly stress-timed.

METHODS: Conversational speech samples were collected from 24 native Cantonese-speaking adults who stuttered. Six consecutive stuttering moments from each participant were analyzed using the Lidcombe behavioral data language (LBDL). A complexity analysis based on the LBDL was developed to indicate the proportion of multiple-behavior stuttering moments for each participant.

RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the frequency of the 7 LBDL behaviors. Almost half the stuttering moments across participants were reported as complex, containing more than 1 stuttering behavior, and stuttering complexity correlated significantly with stuttering severity.

CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary findings require replication because of their important theoretical and clinical implications. Differences in topography across languages have the potential to contribute to our understanding of the nature of stuttering. Clinically, the recognition of such differences may assist practitioners in identifying stuttering, for example when screening for early stuttering. The LBDL complexity score developed in this study has the potential to be used in other languages.

PMID: 29462821 DOI: 10.1159/000481254




Uniqueness Point Effects during Speech Planning in Adults Who Do and Do Not Stutter - FALA

Folia Phoniatr Logop. 2017;69(5-6):191-208. Epub 2018 Mar 13.


Coalson GA, Byrd CT, Kuylen A.

Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA; The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, USA.


BACKGROUND/AIMS: Previous studies employing a variety of tasks have demonstrated that adults who stutter (AWS) pre-sent with phonological encoding differences compared to adults who do not stutter (AWNS). The present study examined whether atypical preverbal monitoring also influenced AWS performance during one such paradigm - the silent phoneme monitoring task. Specifically, we investigated whether monitoring latencies for AWS were accelerated after the word's uniqueness point - the phoneme that isolates the word from all lexical competitors - as observed for AWNS when monitoring internal and external speech.

METHODS: Twenty adults (10 AWS, 10 AWNS) completed a silent phoneme monitoring task using stimuli which contained either (a) early uniqueness points (EUP), (b) late uniqueness points, or (c) no uniqueness point (NUP). Response latency when identifying word-final phonemes was measured.

RESULTS: AWNS exhibited the expected uniqueness point effect when monitoring internal speech; word-final phonemes were accessed more rapidly for words with EUP than NUP. In contrast, AWS did not differ in the phoneme monitoring speed. That is, AWS did not exhibit the expected uniqueness point effects.

CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that inefficient or atypical preverbal monitoring may be present in AWS and support theories that implicate the internal speech monitor as an area of deficit.

PMID: 29533938 DOI: 10.1159/000485657






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