[A Multi-arm Placebo-controlled Study with Glutamic Acid Conducted in Rostock in 1953/1954]. - FARMACOLOGIA
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr. 2017 Sep;66(7):516-525.
[Article in German]
Häßler F, Weirich S.
Tagesklinik für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie der GGP Dierkower, Rostock Deutschland Tagesklinik für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie der GGP; Universitätsmedizin Rostock Gehlsheimer
A Multi-arm Placebo-controlled Study with Glutamic Acid Conducted in Rostock in 1953/1954 Glutamic acid was commonly used in the treatment of intellectually disabled children in the 50s. Koch reported first results of an observation of 140 children treated with glutamic acid in 1952. In this line is the multi-arm placebo-controlled study reported here. The original study protocols were available. 58 children with speech problems who attending a school of special needs received glutamic acid, or vitamin B, or St.-John's-wort. The effect of glutamic acid was in few cases an improvement of attention. On the other hand restlessness and stutter increased. The majority of all reported a weight loss. The treatment with vitamin B showed a positive effect concerning concentration. The treatment with St.-John's wort was stopped caused by headache and vomiting in eight of nine cases. The results of the study reported here are unpublished. The reason may be that until the 60s the effects of glutamic acid in the treatment of intellectually disabled children were in generally overestimated.
PMID: 29557312 DOI: 10.13109/prkk.2017.66.7.516
Speaker and Observer Perceptions of Physical Tension during Stuttering - AVALIAÇÃO
Folia Phoniatr Logop. 2017;69(4):180-189. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
Tichenor S, Leslie P, Shaiman S, Yaruss JS.
Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA; University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.
PURPOSE: Speech-language pathologists routinely assess physical tension during evaluation of those who stutter. If speakers experience tension that is not visible to clinicians, then judgments of severity may be inaccurate. This study addressed this potential discrepancy by comparing judgments of tension by people who stutter and expert clinicians to determine if clinicians could accurately identify the speakers' experience of physical tension.
METHOD: Ten adults who stutter were audio-video recorded in two speaking samples. Two board-certified specialists in fluency evaluated the samples using the Stuttering Severity Instrument-4 and a checklist adapted for this study. Speakers rated their tension using the same forms, and then discussed their experiences in a qualitative interview so that themes related to physical tension could be identified.
RESULTS: The degree of tension reported by speakers was higher than that observed by specialists. Tension in parts of the body that were less visible to the observer (chest, abdomen, throat) was reported more by speakers than by specialists. The thematic analysis revealed that speakers' experience of tension changes over time and that these changes may be related to speakers' acceptance of stuttering.
CONCLUSION: The lack of agreement between speaker and specialist perceptions of tension suggests that using self-reports is a necessary component for supporting the accurate diagnosis of tension in stuttering.
PMID: 29421786 DOI: 10.1159/000486032dhood stuttering.
The Topography of Stuttering in Cantonese - FALA
Folia Phoniatr Logop. 2017;69(3):110-117. Epub 2017 Dec 18.
Law T, Packman A, Onslow M, To CK, Tong MC, Lee KY
The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong; The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
OBJECTIVE: This is the first study to investigate the behavioral nature (topography) of stuttering in Cantonese. Cantonese, a Sino-Tibetan language, is both tonal and syllable-timed. Previous studies of stuttering topography have mainly been in Western languages, which are mainly stress-timed.
METHODS: Conversational speech samples were collected from 24 native Cantonese-speaking adults who stuttered. Six consecutive stuttering moments from each participant were analyzed using the Lidcombe behavioral data language (LBDL). A complexity analysis based on the LBDL was developed to indicate the proportion of multiple-behavior stuttering moments for each participant.
RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the frequency of the 7 LBDL behaviors. Almost half the stuttering moments across participants were reported as complex, containing more than 1 stuttering behavior, and stuttering complexity correlated significantly with stuttering severity.
CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary findings require replication because of their important theoretical and clinical implications. Differences in topography across languages have the potential to contribute to our understanding of the nature of stuttering. Clinically, the recognition of such differences may assist practitioners in identifying stuttering, for example when screening for early stuttering. The LBDL complexity score developed in this study has the potential to be used in other languages.
PMID: 29462821 DOI: 10.1159/000481254
Uniqueness Point Effects during Speech Planning in Adults Who Do and Do Not Stutter - FALA
Folia Phoniatr Logop. 2017;69(5-6):191-208. Epub 2018 Mar 13.
Coalson GA, Byrd CT, Kuylen A.
Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA; The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, USA.
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Previous studies employing a variety of tasks have demonstrated that adults who stutter (AWS) pre-sent with phonological encoding differences compared to adults who do not stutter (AWNS). The present study examined whether atypical preverbal monitoring also influenced AWS performance during one such paradigm - the silent phoneme monitoring task. Specifically, we investigated whether monitoring latencies for AWS were accelerated after the word's uniqueness point - the phoneme that isolates the word from all lexical competitors - as observed for AWNS when monitoring internal and external speech.
METHODS: Twenty adults (10 AWS, 10 AWNS) completed a silent phoneme monitoring task using stimuli which contained either (a) early uniqueness points (EUP), (b) late uniqueness points, or (c) no uniqueness point (NUP). Response latency when identifying word-final phonemes was measured.
RESULTS: AWNS exhibited the expected uniqueness point effect when monitoring internal speech; word-final phonemes were accessed more rapidly for words with EUP than NUP. In contrast, AWS did not differ in the phoneme monitoring speed. That is, AWS did not exhibit the expected uniqueness point effects.
CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that inefficient or atypical preverbal monitoring may be present in AWS and support theories that implicate the internal speech monitor as an area of deficit.
PMID: 29533938 DOI: 10.1159/000485657