Eliana Maria Nigro Rocha



Abstract  - Janeiro a Julho de 2024



A case study of bilingual neurogenic stuttering: Measures of fluency, emotion, and articulation rate - GAGUEIRA ADQUIRIDA

J Commun Disord. 2023 Dec 7:107:106385. Online ahead of print.

Full Text: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0021992423000850?via%3Dihub


Yael Neumann

City University of New York, Queens, NY, United States.


Introduction: This study explores the features of bilingual neurogenic stuttering and the potential connection between emotion and articulation rate on speech disfluencies.

Method: The participant is a 59-year old, Yiddish-English bilingual male with a moderate non-fluent aphasia. Thirty-two narratives (16 in each language), elicited using cue words, were analyzed for frequency of disfluency, type of disfluency (stuttering vs. non-stuttering-like), word-type (content vs. function), within-word location of disfluency, and occurrence of accessory behaviors. Additionally, the percentage and type of emotion (positive vs. negative) expressed, and articulation rate (fluent syllables spoken/duration of fluent utterances) was assessed.

Results: Disfluency occurred in each language with approximately equal frequency. The most common stuttering-like disfluencies were repetitions (monosyllabic, sound, and syllable) and prolongations. The most common non-stuttering-like disfluencies were self-correction/revisions, phrase and multisyllabic word repetitions, and pauses (silent and filled). In both languages, disfluencies occurred on both content and function words, but primarily content words, and in any position of the word, although primarily initial position. No accessory behaviors were noted. There was a similar amount of emotion words used in each language although the first acquired language, L1/Yiddish, had an overall more positive tone, and his second acquired language, L2/English, had a more negative tone. Additionally, there was a negative relationship between emotion and the number of disfluencies in L1/Yiddish, and a positive relationship in L2/English. A faster articulation rate was found in his native and more proficient language, Yiddish, than English. There was a negative relationship between articulation rate and the number of disfluencies in L1/Yiddish, and a positive relationship in L2/English.

Conclusions: Cross-linguistics differences for emotion and articulation rate demonstrates that these aspects impact on fluency and contributes to the disfluencies in each language. Clinical implications of the study demonstrates the importance of assessment of bilingual (i.e., proficiency and dominance) and fluency features of each language in the diagnostic process and the significance of considering emotional processes and articulation rate as part of a comprehensive intervention plan for acquired stuttering.

PMID: 38065050 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcomdis.2023.106385




Attitudes of Malaysian Speech-Language Pathologists and Speech-Language Pathology Students Toward Stuttering - SOCIAL

Folia Phoniatr Logop. 2024 Jan 8. Online ahead of print.


Ying Qian Ong, Annette Lim, Hye Ran Park, Elisabeth Harrison, Grace McConnell, Jaehoon Lee, Lay Shi Ng, Shin Ying Chu


Introduction: Attitudes of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) toward stuttering play an important role in managing stuttering cases. Yet, such studies had not been studied in Malaysia, a country that is still developing the profession of speech-language pathology. This study aimed to explore the attitudes of Malaysian SLPs and speech-language pathology students toward stuttering.

Methods: A total of 50 SLPs and 67 speech-language pathology students completed the Clinician Attitudes Towards Stuttering (CATS) inventory. There were eight domains of attitudes toward stuttering: (a) etiology, (b) early intervention, (c) therapeutic efficacy, (d) personalities of PWS, (e) clinician expertise and roles, (f) teacher/counsellor roles and client/public reactions, (g) therapy strategies, and (h) parent attitudes. Descriptive data were presented and Multivariate Analysis of Variance was conducted to examine the effects of clinical certification on the eight domains of attitudes toward stuttering.

Results: Participants who possessed a clinical certification were more accepting toward the personalities of people who stutter (PWS) and therapy strategies. On the other hand, participants without a clinical certification were more accepting toward clinician expertise and roles.

Conclusions: Current curriculum and professional training should be re-evaluated to remediate less accepting stereotypes held by SLPs and students toward PWS and to enhance essential skills such as counselling.

PMID: 38190816 DOI: 10.1159/000536112




Attitudes toward stuttering of college students in the USA and China: A cross-cultural comparison using the POSHA-S - SOCIAL

J Fluency Disord. 2024 Jan 19:79:106037. Online ahead of print.


Yan Ma, Emmalee M Mason, Evynn M McGinn, Jordan Parker, Judith D Oxley, Kenneth O St Louis

Purdue University Fort Wayne, Fort Wayne, IN, United States; Prosser Memorial Hospital, Prosser, WA, United States; Signature Home Health, Bend, OR, United States; Fort Hays State University, Hays, KS, United States; University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, LA, United States; West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, United States.


Purpose: This study compared the attitudes toward stuttering among college students in China and the USA using the POSHA-S survey, which assesses knowledge about stuttering and attitudes toward it. We investigated how cultural and social differences between the two groups influenced these attitudes.

Methods: We collected 199 responses to the POSHA-S survey from various universities in China and the USA. We conducted a statistical analysis of 15 summary scores generated from the POSHA-S to determine if there were significant differences in attitudes toward stuttering between the two groups. Additionally, we retrieved percentile ranks relative to the global POSHA-S database to compare attitudes in both groups with global median scores.

Results: The study revealed that Chinese college students hold more negative attitudes toward stuttering compared to their American counterparts and the global median scores. We discussed the social and cultural factors that may contribute to these attitudes. Furthermore, our findings emphasized the importance of addressing the lack of accurate information about stuttering in China, which could be a key factor driving these negative attitudes.

Conclusion: These results underscore the urgent need to raise awareness about stuttering and promote a shift in public attitudes, especially among college students in China, who play influential roles in society's future.

PMID: 38301423 DOI: 10.1016/j.jfludis.2024.106037




Awareness and Knowledge of Stuttering Among Malaysian School-Aged Children: An Exploratory Study - SOCIAL

Folia Phoniatr Logop. 2024 Jan 17. Online ahead of print.


Ying Qian Ong, Nurul Nadia Hasmidi, Jaehoon Lee, Dadang Amir Hamzah, Rachael Unicomb, Shin Ying Chu


Introduction: Knowledge and awareness of stuttering are closely associated with attitudes toward stuttering. Few studies have been conducted on the knowledge and awareness of school-aged children, and none have been conducted in Malaysia. This study aimed to: (a) determine knowledge and awareness of stuttering among Malaysian school-aged children, and (b) determine whether there are differences between age group, gender and PWS exposure groups.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 192 Malay school-aged children (mean age = 9.47, SD = 1.781) recruited via email and social media platforms. They completed a Malay version of the questionnaire devised by van Borsel et al. (1999) on various aspects of stuttering, including prevalence, onset, gender distribution, occurrence in different cultures, cause, treatment, intelligence, and heredity of stuttering. The chi-square test of independence was performed to compare the distributions of survey responses by age group, gender and PWS exposure group.

Results: Around half of the school-age children had met a person who stutters, but certain aspects of their knowledge were limited. Knowledge also differed according to age and gender. Girls were more knowledgeable about stuttering than boys. Regarding stuttering treatment, younger children had more positive attitudes than older children. Participants who did not know a PWS were more likely to consult their family doctor rather than a speech-language pathologist in relation to stuttering.

Conclusions: Knowledge and awareness of stuttering among Malaysian school-aged children were limited. Findings of this study could be used to develop a stuttering awareness program specific to children to increase their knowledge and awareness about stuttering.

PMID: 38232721 DOI: 10.1159/000536207




Can listeners predict whether or not a stutter follows a stretch of fluent speech? - SOCIAL

J Fluency Disord. 2024 Jan 22:79:106038. Online ahead of print.


Xena Liu, Peter Howell

University College London, London, UK


Purpose: Neurophysiological studies report that people who stutter (PWS) exhibit enhanced motor preparation before they stutter. This motor preparation pattern raises the possibility of detecting upcoming stutter moments before they actually occur. This study examined whether these motor preparation differences are detectable by listeners in the corresponding acoustic signal, thereby allowing them to predict upcoming stuttering moments. If so, features in these acoustic patterns could potentially be employed by computational procedures to automate detection of upcoming stutters and to target auditory feedback alterations specifically on these locations.

Methods: Forty healthy normal-hearing participants (aged 18-30) listened to seemingly fluent speech extracts each of which was either followed by a fluent (control condition) or stuttered (experimental condition) moment after the fluent extract. Participants listened to each extract and rated the likelihood of the speaker stuttering on the next word on a scale of 1 (very unlikely) to 7 (very likely) as to whether they thought there was a subsequent stutter. Several measures were made on the speech extracts which were examined either as control requirements to ensure no differences between experimental and control material or as covariates to assess any effects they had on judgments between the two conditions.

Results: Listeners gave significantly higher stutter-likelihood ratings for speech originally followed by a stuttered moment although effects were small.

Conclusions: Naive listeners rated speech extracts that were subsequently followed by stuttered moments as more likely to be followed by a stutter than those that were followed by fluent words after the effects of significant covariates were excluded.

PMID: 38290224 DOI: 10.1016/j.jfludis.2024.106038




Designing a Module on Stuttering and Cluttering: A Guide for Speech-Language Pathology Educators - SOCIAL

Am J Speech Lang Pathol. 2024 Feb 16:1-17. Online ahead of print.


Amy Connery, Caitríona Ní Shé

Trinity College Dublin, Ireland.


Purpose: Due to the scope of practice of speech-language pathology (SLP) expanding considerably in recent times, there is reduced emphasis on certain communication conditions within the curricula of SLP university programs. Stuttering and cluttering are neglected components of such curricula, despite the complex clinical skill set required to work with these client groups. Evaluation of the content and quality of modules on stuttering and cluttering is warranted to ensure that SLP students are graduating with adequate competence and confidence for supporting people with these conditions. This tutorial, based on a review of the literature, aims to provide guidance to educators who are designing or revising such modules.

Method: The All Ireland Society for Higher Education (AISHE) model for module design provides a practical and theoretically underpinned guide to educators in higher education on the design of a new module or the review of an existing one. The model's seven key components are discussed, and their application to a module on stuttering and cluttering is outlined.

Results: The AISHE model provides a systematic and user-friendly approach to module design in SLP university programs. It supports educators who are designing a new module or revising a module currently being taught on stuttering and cluttering.

Conclusions: Educators are encouraged to familiarize themselves with the seven components of the AISHE model and to use it as a tool to design or revise modules on stuttering and cluttering. This will ensure that SLP students are graduating with increased competence and confidence in working with these client groups.

PMID: 38363726 DOI: 10.1044/2024_AJSLP-23-00263




Evaluation of an Integrated Fluency and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Intervention for Adolescents and Adults Who Stutter - TERAPIA

J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2024 Feb 15:1-17. Online ahead of print.


Alice K Hart, Lauren J Breen, Neville W Hennessey, Janet M Beilby

Curtin University, Bentley, Western Australia, Australia.


Purpose: Developmental stuttering is a complex and multifaceted neurodevelopmental disorder that may cause pervasive negative consequences for adults who stutter (AWS). Historically, intervention for AWS has primarily addressed speech fluency, with less focus on the covert psychosocial aspects of the disorder. The purpose of this article is to report on a feasibility trial evaluating a novel integrated intervention that combines traditional stuttering management techniques with Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for AWS.

Method: Twenty-nine AWS participated in the feasibility trial. All participants successfully completed a combined fluency and ACT intervention, titled the fluency and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Stuttering (fACTS) Program. As this was a feasibility study, no control group was included. Intervention was administered by two certified practicing speech-language pathologists, over eight 60- to 90-min sessions.

Results: Generalized linear mixed modeling was used to determine change from pre- to post-intervention and follow-up. Significant pre- and post-intervention improvements in self-efficacy, psychosocial functioning, and psychological flexibility were observed, along with significant reductions in observable stuttering behaviors (i.e., stuttered speech frequency). Intervention gains for all variables of interest were maintained 3 and 6 months post-intervention.

Conclusions: The fACTS Program was created to be a holistic and flexible intervention to promote self-efficacy beliefs and address stuttering-related psychosocial impacts and speech fluency goals of AWS. Preliminary results indicated positive improvement in all psychosocial outcomes (i.e., self-efficacy, psychosocial impact, and psychological flexibility) and observable speech fluency following completion of the program. Future clinical trials of the fACTS Program with an included control group will further investigate the mechanisms of change for the positive effects observed.

PMID: 38358941 DOI: 10.1044/2023_JSLHR-23-00252




Genetic architecture of childhood speech disorder: a review - GENÉTICA

Review Mol Psychiatry. 2024 Feb 16. Online ahead of print.


Angela T Morgan, David J Amor, Miya D St John, Ingrid E Scheffer, Michael S Hildebrand

Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia;  Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.; Austin Health, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.


Severe speech disorders lead to poor literacy, reduced academic attainment and negative psychosocial outcomes. As early as the 1950s, the familial nature of speech disorders was recognized, implying a genetic basis; but the molecular genetic basis remained unknown. In 2001, investigation of a large three generational family with severe speech disorder, known as childhood apraxia of speech (CAS), revealed the first causative gene; FOXP2. A long hiatus then followed for CAS candidate genes, but in the past three years, genetic analysis of cohorts ascertained for CAS have revealed over 30 causative genes. A total of 36 pathogenic variants have been identified from 122 cases across 3 cohorts in this nascent field. All genes identified have been in coding regions to date, with no apparent benefit at this stage for WGS over WES in identifying monogenic conditions associated with CAS. Hence current findings suggest a remarkable one in three children have a genetic variant that explains their CAS, with significant genetic heterogeneity emerging. Around half of the candidate genes identified are currently supported by medium (6 genes) to strong (9 genes) evidence supporting the association between the gene and CAS. Despite genetic heterogeneity; many implicated proteins functionally converge on pathways involved in chromatin modification or transcriptional regulation, opening the door to precision diagnosis and therapies. Most of the new candidate genes for CAS are associated with previously described neurodevelopmental conditions that include intellectual disability, autism and epilepsy; broadening the phenotypic spectrum to a distinctly milder presentation defined by primary speech disorder in the setting of normal intellect. Insights into the genetic bases of CAS, a severe, rare speech disorder, are yet to translate to understanding the heritability of more common, typically milder forms of speech or language impairment such as stuttering or phonological disorder. These disorders likely follow complex inheritance with polygenic contributions in many cases, rather than the monogenic patterns that underly one-third of patients with CAS. Clinical genetic testing for should now be implemented for individuals with CAS, given its high diagnostic rate, which parallels many other neurodevelopmental disorders where this testing is already standard of care. The shared mechanisms implicated by gene discovery for CAS highlight potential new targets for future precision therapies.

PMID: 38366112 DOI: 10.1038/s41380-024-02409-8




How perceived communication skills needed for careers influences vocational stereotyping of people who stutter - SOCIAL

J Fluency Disord. 2024 Feb 3:80:106039. Online ahead of print.


Cody W Dew, Rodney M Gabel

Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY, USA.


Purpose: Prior research has revealed people who stutter experience role entrapment in which they are discouraged from pursuing certain careers over others. The Vocational Advice Scale (VAS; Gabel et al., 2004) is a reliable survey previously used to investigate this phenomenon. This study used the VAS to determine if communication skills required for careers influences reports of role entrapment.

Method: An online survey which included the VAS and perceptions of communication skills needed for each career listed on the VAS was distributed. Correlations between items on the two surveys were completed to investigate how communication skills influences the presence of role entrapment. In addition, a one-way analysis of variance was completed to explore differences between individuals who regularly provide career advice with those who do not.

Results: Analysis found a significant correlation between perceived communication skills required for a career and the advice provided. As the perceived communication skills needed for a career increases, the likelihood of someone advising a person who stutters to pursue that career decreases. A one-way analysis of variance further revealed participants who regularly provide career advice did not differ from those participants who do not.

Conclusion: Perceived communication abilities needed for a career is a significant indicator of role entrapment towards people who stutter. Results agree with previous studies which found differences in advisability of certain careers over others for people who stutter, especially those which require communication within challenging situations (e.g., judge, attorney).

PMID: 38359501 DOI: 10.1016/j.jfludis.2024.106039




Manifestation of speech disfluencies in preschool Cantonese-English speaking bilingual children - INFANTIL / BILINGUISMO

Clin Linguist Phon. 2024 Jan 25:1-17. Online ahead of print.


Mehdi Bakhtiar

The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.


Stuttering is characterised by disruptions in speech fluency that normally emerges between the ages of 2 to 5 when children start to formulate sentences. Current stuttering identification in children is largely based on speech disfluency criteria (>3% stuttering-like disfluencies, SLDs) developed for monolingual English-speaking children. Research in a Western language context shows that application of the criteria for monolingual to bilingual children may result in false positive diagnosis of stuttering. The applicability of these criteria to children speaking languages typologically distinct from English remains unclear. This preliminary study focused on bilingual Cantonese-English-speaking children, aiming to explore the manifestations of the speech disfluencies in Cantonese (a syllable-timed language) and English (a stress-timed language) while accounting for language dominance/proficiency and speaking task. Nineteen typically fluent Cantonese-English bilingual preschoolers were recruited for this study and their speech samples were collected across different speaking tasks (i.e. conversation and narration), and languages (i.e. Cantonese and English). The types and frequency of speech disfluencies were compared across both languages and the speaking tasks. The results showed that between 21-68% of children showed higher than 3% SLDs across different languages and speaking tasks. Linear mixed-effect analysis revealed that the prevalence of SLDs is higher in English (less dominant language) than Cantonese (more dominant language), and the prevalence is also higher in narration than conversation. These findings suggest the need for tailored stuttering identification criteria for bilingual children speaking diverse languages and emphasise the importance of considering language dominance/proficiency and speaking task when assessing stuttering in bilingual populations.

PMID: 38272017 DOI: 10.1080/02699206.2024.2305645




Morphological deficits of glial cells in a transgenic mouse model for developmental stuttering - OUTRAS ÁREAS

bioRxiv. 2024 Jan 5:2024.01.04.574051. Preprint

Free PMC article: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2024.01.04.574051v1.full.pdf


Afuh Adeck, Marissa Millwater, Camryn Bragg, Ruli Zhang, Shahriar SheikhBahaei


Vocal production involves intricate neural coordination across various brain regions. Stuttering, a common speech disorder, has genetic underpinnings, including mutations in lysosomal-targeting pathway genes. Using a Gnptab-mutant mouse model linked to stuttering, we examined neuron and glial cell morphology in vocal production circuits. Our findings revealed altered astrocyte and microglia processes in these circuits in Gnptab-mutant mice, while control regions remained unaffected. Our results shed light on the potential role of glial cells in stuttering pathophysiology and highlight their relevance in modulating vocal production behaviors.

PMID: 38260402 PMCID: PMC10802298 DOI: 10.1101/2024.01.04.574051




Risk of sleep problems in a clinical sample of children who stutter - INFANTIL / AMBIENTE

J Fluency Disord. 2024 Jan 6:79:106036. Online ahead of print.


Maria Clara Helena do Couto, Cristiane Moço Canhetti de Oliveira, Sandra Merlo, Patrick M Briley, Luciana Pinato

São Paulo State University (UNESP), Marilia, SP, Brazil; Brazilian Fluency Institute, Av. Brg. Faria Lima, 1811, conj 822, São Paulo, SP,Brazil. merlo.sandra@gagueira.org.br; East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, United States.


Purpose: Previous studies have shown increased prevalence of sleep problems among people who stutter. However, there is a lack of knowledge about what these sleep problems may specifically be.

Method: Fifty children who stutter (CWS) from 6;0 to 12;9 years of age and 50 age- and gender-matched controls participated in this study. Parents did not report coexisting conditions, excepting stuttering and/or sleep problems. Sleep problems were investigated using a standardized questionnaire answered by parents. The questionnaire shows cut-off scores to identify the risk of sleep problems as a whole and on each one of the six subscales (i.e., disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep; sleep breathing disorders; disorders of arousal; sleep-wake transition disorders; disorders of excessive somnolence; and sleep hyperhidrosis). Scores above the cut-off are suggestive of sleep problems.

Results: Twenty-one CWS scored higher than the cut-off on the sleep questionnaire compared to only two controls (p < 0.00001). Specifically, CWS scored higher than controls in disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep, sleep-wake transition disorders (especially jerking, sleep talking, and bruxism), and disorders of excessive somnolence (p < 0.0083, corrected for multiple comparisons).

Discussion: Compared to controls, CWS are at greater risk for sleep problems, which are not consequences of coexisting disorders. Present findings confirm and expand current knowledge about sleep problems in CWS. Directionality possibilities and clinical implications are discussed.

PMID: 38241960 DOI: 10.1016/j.jfludis.2023.106036




Screening for Speech and Language Delay and Disorders in Children 5 Years or Younger: Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force - OUTRAS ÁREAS

JAMA. 2024 Jan 23;331(4):335-351. doi: 10.1001/jama.2023.24647.


Cynthia Feltner et al

RTI International-University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Evidence-based Practice Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; RTI International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina; Oregon Health & Science University.


Importance: Children with speech and language difficulties are at risk for learning and behavioral problems.

Objective: To review the evidence on screening for speech and language delay or disorders in children 5 years or younger to inform the US Preventive Services Task Force.

Data sources: PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, PsycInfo, ERIC, Linguistic and Language Behavior Abstracts (ProQuest), and trial registries through January 17, 2023; surveillance through November 24, 2023.

Study selection: English-language studies of screening test accuracy, trials or cohort studies comparing screening vs no screening; randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of interventions.

Data extraction and synthesis: Dual review of abstracts, full-text articles, study quality, and data extraction; results were narratively summarized.

Main outcomes and measures: Screening test accuracy, speech and language outcomes, school performance, function, quality of life, and harms.

Results: Thirty-eight studies in 41 articles were included (N = 9006). No study evaluated the direct benefits of screening vs no screening. Twenty-one studies (n = 7489) assessed the accuracy of 23 different screening tools that varied with regard to whether they were designed to be completed by parents vs trained examiners, and to screen for global (any) language problems vs specific skills (eg, expressive language). Three studies assessing parent-reported tools for expressive language skills found consistently high sensitivity (range, 88%-93%) and specificity (range, 88%-85%). The accuracy of other screening tools varied widely. Seventeen RCTs (n = 1517) evaluated interventions for speech and language delay or disorders, although none enrolled children identified by routine screening in primary care. Two RCTs evaluating relatively intensive parental group training interventions (11 sessions) found benefit for different measures of expressive language skills, and 1 evaluating a less intensive intervention (6 sessions) found no difference between groups for any outcome. Two RCTs (n = 76) evaluating the Lidcombe Program of Early Stuttering Intervention delivered by speech-language pathologists featuring parent training found a 2.3% to 3.0% lower proportion of syllables stuttered at 9 months compared with the control group when delivered in clinic and via telehealth, respectively. Evidence on other interventions was limited. No RCTs reported on the harms of interventions.

Conclusions and relevance: No studies directly assessed the benefits and harms of screening. Some parent-reported screening tools for expressive language skills had reasonable accuracy for detecting expressive language delay. Group parent training programs for speech delay that provided at least 11 parental training sessions improved expressive language skills, and a stuttering intervention delivered by speech-language pathologists reduced stuttering frequency.

PMID: 38261038 DOI: 10.1001/jama.2023.24647




Self-reported musculoskeletal pain, headache, jaw pain and swallowing dysfunction in a sample of young Saudi adults who stutter - AVALIAÇÃO

J Pak Med Assoc. 2024 Jan;74(1):32-37.

Free article: https://ojs.jpma.org.pk/index.php/public_html/article/view/7264


Abdulaziz Almudhi , Hamayun Zafar

King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia; King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.


Objectives: To report the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain, headache, jaw pain and difficulty in swallowing among people who stutter (PWS).

Methods: The cross-sectioal study was conducted from October 3, 2021, to March 21, 2022, after approval from the ethics review committee of King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia, and comprised adult people who stutter belonging to different regions of Saudi Arabia. They were divided into five groups based on stuttering severity as estimated by Stuttering Severity Instrument-4. Data was collected on musculoskeletal pain in different body areas using a questionnaire.. Data ws analysed using SPSS 22.

Results: Of the 101 Arabic-speaking subjects, 63(62.4%) were males and 38(37.6%) were females. The overall mean age was 27±7 years (range: 18-39 years). The largest group was of subjects with moderate severity of stuttering 31(30.6%); 21(68%) males and 10(32%) females. The increase in number of musculoskeletal pain locations was related to the severity of stuttering (p<0.05). The most common musculoskeletal pain sites were the lower back 31(31%), neck 26(26%) and shoulder 26(26%). Frequent headaches and difficulty chewing hard food due to jaw pain were reported by 49(49%) and 22(22%) participants, respectively (p<0.05). Swallowing difficulty was reported by 9(9%) participants (p>0.05).

Conclusions: Widespread chronic musculoskeletal pain of low intensity was found to be common among people who stuttered, and the number of pain locations was positively related to stuttering severity.

PMID: 38219161 DOI: 10.47391/JPMA.7264




Therapeutic potential of robots for people who stutter: a preliminary study - OUTRAS ÁREAS

Front Psychiatry. 2024 Jan 12:15:1298626.

Free PMC article: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC10811234/pdf/fpsyt-15-1298626.pdf


Yuichiro Yoshikawa et al

Osaka University, Osaka, Japan; Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan; Research Institute, Saitama, Japan; Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan.


Introduction: Growing anecdotal evidence suggests the feasibility of robotic intervention for people who suffer from disorders related to state anxiety. Few studies have been conducted on utilizing robots for persons who stutter (PWS). The present study examines the feasibility of using a robot for speech therapy for PWS.

Methods: We prepared four settings (i.e., interviews with unfamiliar persons, interviews with unfamiliar communication robots, reading sentences aloud with a tandem robot that can utter the same words as a user by repeating the user's voice after a short delay, and reading sentences aloud while being alone). We assessed the potential of the robots as both interlocutors and practice partners in training with delayed auditory feedback (DAF) for PWS. Moreover, we assessed the relationship between the trait of stuttering and the participants' affinity to the robots.

Results: Eleven PWS participated in the study. Eight (72.7%) participants had fewer stuttering-related psychological symptoms when they communicated with robots than when they communicated with humans. Spearman's rank correlation analysis revealed that there was a significant negative correlation between the Modified Erickson Communication Attitude scale (S-24) and the difference between the scores for stuttering-related psychological symptoms pertaining to the communication robot and humans (p < 0.01). Six participants (54.5%) had fewer stuttering-related psychological symptoms when they read aloud with the tandem robot than when they read aloud alone. There were significant positive correlations between S-24 and the differences between the scores for stuttering-related psychological symptoms when reading aloud with the tandem robot and those when reading aloud alone (p < 0.01).

Discussion: The communication robot and tandem utterance robot can sometimes be burdensome, although both robots were always easier to talk to for PWS in this preliminary study. The participants with positive speech-related attitudes were more inclined to decrease stuttering-related psychological symptoms when communicating with CommU than when communicating with humans. The participants whose speech-related attitudes were negative were more inclined to show a decrease in stuttering-related psychological symptoms when reading aloud with the tandem robot. Further studies are needed to provide more detailed information.

PMID: 38283848 PMCID: PMC10811234 DOI: 10.3389/fpsyt.2024.1298626




What works, how and in which contexts when supporting parents to implement intensive speech and language therapy at home for children with speech sound disorder? A protocol for a realist review - INFANTIL / AMBIENTE

BMJ Open. 2024 Jan 6;14(1):e074272.

Free PMC article: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC10773357/pdf/bmjopen-2023-074272.pdf


Naomi Leafe, Emma Pagnamenta, Laurence Taggart, Mark Donnelly, Angela Hassiotis, Jill Titterington

Ulster University, Belfast, UK leafe-n@ulster.ac.uk; University of Reading, Reading, UK; Royal Free and University College Medical School, London, UK.


Introduction: Speech and language therapists (SLTs) worldwide report challenges with providing recommended, evidence-based intervention intensity for children with speech sound disorder (SSD). Challenges such as service constraints and/or family contexts impact on access to optimal therapy intensity. Existing research indicates that empowering and training parents to deliver intervention at home, alongside SLT support, offers one possible solution to increasing the intensity of intervention children with SSD receive. Digital health could increase accessibility to intensive home practice and help sustain engagement with therapy activities. Further exploration is needed around what makes parent-implemented interventions for children with SSD effective, for who and in which situations. This paper outlines the protocol for a realist review which aims to explore the active ingredients and contextual factors of effective digital parent-led interventions.

Methods and analysis: A realist review will explore the research question, following six stages. The scope of the review will be determined, and initial programme theories will be developed about what works in digital parent-implemented interventions for SSD, for whom, how, why and in what circumstances. Relevant secondary data, identified through a formal search strategy, will be selected, appraised, analysed and synthesised using realist principles to test and further refine the initial programme theories. This process will develop refined underpinning explanatory theories which capture the interaction between contexts, mechanisms and outcomes of the intervention. An expert steering group will provide insight to inform explanatory theories, searches, and dissemination.

PMID: 38184311 PMCID: PMC10773357 DOI: 10.1136






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                                    janeiro a julho de 2018

                                    agosto a dezembro de 2018


                                    janeiro a julho de 2017

                                    agosto a dezembro de 2017


                                    janeiro a julho de 2016

                                    agosto a dezembro de 2016


                                    janeiro a julho de 2015

                                    agosto a dezembro de 2015


                                    janeiro a julho de 2014
                                    agosto a dezembro de 2014


                                     janeiro a julho de 2013

                                     agosto a dezembro de 2013


                                      janeiro a julho de 2012

                                      agosto a dezembro de 2012